مرکزی صفحہ AAV Today Adverse Reaction to Pox Vaccine in Pigeons

Adverse Reaction to Pox Vaccine in Pigeons

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جلد:
1
زبان:
english
رسالہ:
AAV Today
DOI:
10.2307/27670218
Date:
April, 1987
فائل:
PDF, 420 KB
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1

New Bacteriology Kits for Birds

سال:
1987
زبان:
english
فائل:
PDF, 232 KB
2

Objection to Beak/Feather Disease Comments

سال:
1987
زبان:
english
فائل:
PDF, 243 KB
Association of Avian Veterinarians

Adverse Reaction to Pox Vaccine in Pigeons
Author(s): Richard R. Nye
Source: AAV Today, Vol. 1, No. 1 (Jan., 1987), pp. 12-13
Published by: Association of Avian Veterinarians
Stable URL: http://www.jstor.org/stable/27670218 .
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9*1

Mif

?x{i?Sue*tce,...

to Gram's

IME: Response
Stains Comments

With regard to IME's 697 and 698, I
would agree that the Gram's stain is
only a qualitative aid in assessing the
microflora

of

lab, we
small,

the avian

simply

grade
or

moderate,

three most

The
Gram's

stains

cultures

are:

negative

large

in number

common

reasons

of

1) presence

anaerobes;

of

Australians

gram

of the sample in the
practice lab; 3) swabbing the pharynx
a Gram's

a sample

submit

then

stain,

For

laboratory.

are

a better

to screen

place

for

a bird

in fact the

feather picking, when
pharynx

show

may

visual

and

of

failure

of

the Gram's

negative

that

shows

few
on

organisms

or

no

may

Pseudomonas)

Gram's
without
choose
for

flora

to provide

stain

"diarrhea,"

any
the

choana

assessment.

over

a

I will

always

success

improved with this approach as many
practitioners have found when
comparing

separate

cultures

hanging

aro; und.

not

?

Robert

is

California

Remember,

was

the bird

Wright, North

Pole,

to

Reaction
in Pigeons

Vaccine

Pox

may

are

other

for

of pox.

the prevention

Leg feathers were plucked and the
vaccine was brushed into the empty
follicles as directed. Ten of the birds

that the

there

an

to normal.

back

IME: Adverse

in the above

that

not

came

severe

with

down

-

clinical

signs

lethargy, off feed, and large lesions
the

around

eyes

and mouth.

no deaths. One month

non-viral

were

revaccinated

and

no morbidity

with
was

were

There

later 24 birds
the

same

vaccine

noted.

The vaccine was Vineland Pigeon
Pox Vaccine of live virus chicken
embryo origin. The vaccine is
for use

recommended

observations.

E. Schmidt,

of Gatorade

recommended

not mean

are

amount

small

intranuclear

inclusions

a

soda/water/chocolate

seen

intranuclear

there

A

?Annette
Alaska

as a prevention

of

pox in racing homer pigeons only. It
DVM,

PhD,

may

Veterinary Diagnostics,

cause

permanent

lesions

color change which would

Inc.

or

exhibition

show

pigeons.

or

feather

disqualify
Vaccination

should be administered only to healthy
birds and can be done as early as 4

submitted

from both ends of the same bird. I'm
not really interested in what's passing
through at the moment, but rather
what's

that

the

The owner of 60 young racing
pigeons vaccinated all birds as

and
been

of baking
soda was
water
of warm
and

later administered and within

hour,

species and I believe

does

morphologic

the cloaca/feces

Clinical

was

other viral diseases that affect the feather
follicle of psittacines (i.e., papovavirus),

and

guidance

minutes.

in a

species.

of

1 teaspoon
to a quart

the

diseases which can cause grossly noted
feather abnormalities, but the disease
called psittacine beak and feather (or
feather and beak) disease does occur in
a variety of psittacine species based on

on

with

pre-assessment

This

or

media.
Without

disease

crop,"
added

regurgitate

depend on the stage of the disease.

stain,

appear

concerning

a similiar

have

presence

gram

but has a hemogram that strongly
suggests "bacterial infection"; twelve
hours later, a heavy bacterial growth
(e.g.,

of

mentioned
to

stain

the Gram's

correct
of

inclusions

indicate culture results might be in the
Amazon parrot with an inflamed
pharynx

are

intracytoplasmic

perhaps

olfactory changes (which often correlate
A classic
with abnormal flora.)
example

workers

to place

made

and have dark diarrhea over the next 30

the Australian

experience

has been electron microscopic
confirmation of the virus in a Ring
necked parakeet (Psittacula) with
identical histologie lesions. Both

or

disease

respiratory

In my

were

Attempts

syringe was used to repeatedly flush out
the crop. The bird continued to

I have seen histologie lesions that are
identical to those recently reported in
cockatoos from Florida (JA VMA, 189,
pg. 999) in several species including
lovebirds and Eclectus parrots, and there

bacteriologically. All too often,
practitioners will submit fecal cultures
(with no clinical changes in the stool) as
a screen

parrots.

variety

#3, the use of a sterile slide can
eliminate the need for swabbing twice.
Clinically, I do not agree that the
feces

viral-caused

concerning

occurrence

to

reswabbing

to the

Comments

feather problems in a variety of
psittacines. She specifically mentions
lovebirds (Agapornis) and Eclectus

with

over

2)

to Beak/

Disease

cage.

the bird back on the perch, but he
continued to fall off. A few minutes
later, the bird started regurgitating the
chocolate and passing very dark stools.
Using a home remedy for "sour

Dr. Helga Gerlach has stated (IME
703) that she disagrees with the

a

decolorization
for

seen ingesting chocolate cake with
chocolate icing. The bird became
lethargic and later was noticed sitting
with ruffled feathers on the bottom of

the hood."

IME: Objection
Feather

In our
portals.
an organism
as

to correlate

fail

under

the

type.

morphologic

"check

always

?Alan M Fudge, DVM,
Citrus Heights,
California

IME: Chocolate Toxicity
During a birthday celebration, a 1
year old tame African Grey Parrot was

weeks

I

of

age.

A

vaccination

"take"

is

determined by noting a swelling at the
site of administration 10 to 14 days
following the vaccination. If no "take" is

12 THE AVIAN PRACTITIONER

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evident the birds should be revaccinated.
I was not given information regarding
"takes"

the

following

first

immunity.

developed

owner

has

not

experienced any further problems with

Internal

Richard R. Nye, DVM,
Illinois
Westchester,

own

In my

I buy

practice,

Increased

separate

enrichment broths, then I plate the
media the following day. I normally
culture samples from both the cloaca
oral

The

cavity.
is also

handy

The

is currently

company

on

effect

the male,

of

sacs

to air

may

from

surgical
the normal

prevent

circulation of internal air and thus raise
the body temperature surrounding the

on

developing a tylosine sensitivity disc.
?
DVM, Glen Head,
Jeff Krasnoff
New York

I got to the point where I was
20-30
avian bacterial cultures
sending
an
to
outside lab (with a
week
per
turn-around time of 4-6 days), I decided

adverse

particularly

intervention

working

an

lead to infertility. Severe

damage

as a

to use

gonads,

and may

of

size

miniature

or body

environmental
has

temperature
avian

teaching aid for clients.

IME: New Bacteriology
Kits for Birds

Temperature

reduced.

the plate

?

to

IME: Fertility Related

and

in-house,

screening

bacteriological

and

virus.

pox

as $5000 a year by doing this
the turn-around time is significantly

vaccinations.

reason for the lack of morbidity
following the second vaccinations could
be that those revaccinated birds had

One

The

I

gonads.
?

G.M.

Dorrestein,

The Netherlands

of Utrect,

University

When

a commercial

to approach

firm

the possibility of developing
bacteriology kit for birds.
For

the avian

about

system

that

produces

results for a fraction of the cost and
time involved in sending samples out. A
culture

single

five

contains

plate

Klebsiella,
Proteus,

are

Enterobacter,

Pseudomonas
Staphylococcus

E.coli,
aeruginosa,
aureus
and

By comparing the results of the
growth on the media with a chart
provided with the kit, the practitioner
has a good idea of what organisms he is
dealing with within 48 hours. One can
quantitate

the

exact

writing
of

number

of

as

a member

Avian

of

around

the world

interest

in avian

dia

who

have

medicine.

for a vaccine

need

since

psittaci

throughout

is an

against

this

organism

Chlamy
causes

where

severe

and

within

cause

it may

the

six

units

of our medical

center.

a vaccine.

is a difficult one to work with in the
laboratory and is not highly antigenic. I

that

I can

save

as much

your

know

questions

or

can

I understand

imagine
not

be

that

that development
easy.

would

company
such

developing

let me

consider

a vaccine.

if you have

Please

any further

comments.

yours,

Sincerely

cases

two

months

Another problem with this disease is
that the symptoms are highly variable in
birds as well as inman and the diagnosis
presently is often difficult antemortem.
Presently, to my knowledge, there is no
significant work being done on developing

will

or

pets

example,

past

care

as

kept

to

The system is so compact that 30
plates can fit into a small incubator. The
cost per test (including thefungal plate
and sensitivity discs) is approximately
I estimate

effort

toward

Steven B. Metz, DVM
Shelburne, Vermont

where people contracted chlamydiosis
from their birds and ended up in the
intensive

use

and any other

I personally, as well as the Association
of Avian Veterinarians, would appreciate
any

colonies.

$4.

where
animals.

would
wide

very

are

birds

country

work

would
vaccine

receive

In my
pneumonia.
we
have
had

dangerous
for

a moderate

be profoundly

this country

display

who

physicians

who
The

problem.

unquestionably

severe disease with high mortality in birds
of all species, and is also infectious to
man,

to a company

a

a particular
There

as

as well

capacity

treat bird owners would

the

Veterinarians,

group of several hundred (Ed. note: nearly
two thousand) veterinary practitioners

community,

Streptococcus. A separate Biggy's plate
in the kit identifies Candida albicans.

also

am

Association

urgent

different media: EMB (Eosin M?thyl?ne
Blue), XLD, Simmons Citrate, TSA
(Tryptic soy agar with 5% sheep's
blood), and Mueller Hinton. The
primary organisms the plate is designed
to grow

Wood:

I

any

grateful
on
this

Mr.

Dear
with

practitioner

in-house

To: Mr. Barry Wood, Norden Labs, Box
80809, Lincoln, NE 68501

an in-house

minimal experience in bacteriology,
Ultra Diagnostics has created a very
simple,

IME: Open Letter to Norden Labs

However,

the organism

of a vaccine
I am

sure

that

all veterinarians who work with birds in

Ed note: I understand that Dr. Metz
received an amiable but noncommital reply
from

Norden.

requests
ence.

from
Other

Sometimes

sheer

veterinarians

volumes
a

make
that

companies

of

differ

would

be

interested in hearing about a potential
market for pet bird vaccines and other
pharmaceuticals are: 1)Maine Biological
Laboratories,

Inc.,

ME

P.O.

Box

255,

04901

Waterville,
(207)
873-3989 and 2) Wildlife Laboratories,
Inc. P.O. Box 8938, Ft. Collins, CO
80525 (303) 484-6267.

VOL.1

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N0.1

1987

13