مرکزی صفحہ AAV Today Fibrosarcoma in a Cockatiel (Nymphicus hollandicus)

Fibrosarcoma in a Cockatiel (Nymphicus hollandicus)

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1
زبان:
english
رسالہ:
AAV Today
DOI:
10.2307/27670228
Date:
April, 1987
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Radiograph Self Assessment

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Auian Literature

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1987
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Association of Avian Veterinarians

Fibrosarcoma in a Cockatiel (Nymphicus hollandicus)
Author(s): Terry W. Campbell and George A. Kennedy
Source: AAV Today, Vol. 1, No. 1 (Jan., 1987), pp. 19-21
Published by: Association of Avian Veterinarians
Stable URL: http://www.jstor.org/stable/27670228 .
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PneAenicdio+t
HeJjj&teed
in a Cockatiel

Fibrosarcoma

(Nymphicus

hollandicus)

Terry W. Campbell, MS, DVM*
George A. Kennedy, DVM**
*
**

Department
Diagnostic

involving the respiratory tract of birds are
frequently encountered by avian veterinarians. Often
these diseases are associated with infectious agents,

Diseases

of Surgery
Laboratory,

and Medicine,
Kansas

State

Kansas
University,

State

University,

Manhattan,

Manhattan,

Kansas

Kansas

bacterial abscessation or fungal granuloma associated with
trachea, syrinx, or primary bronchi were considered to be

the

possible causes of the bird's respiratory disorder.

such as bacteria or fungi; however, noninfectious diseases
should also be considered. This case report describes the

Diagnostic

findings in a cockatiel with a
Because
primary lung neoplasm.
primary neoplasia involving
the respiratory tract of birds is rarely seen, it is often
overlooked as a possible cau; se of respiratory tract disease in

Blood was obtained by jugular venipuncture for routine
hematology and chemistry evaluations. Whole body
radiographs were taken to evaluate the lower respiratory

Approach

clinical and pathological

these

tract. A trach?al wash was performed using a sterile 23 gauge
needle and polyethylene tubing (PE 50,
and
IntramedicR, Clay Adams Division of Becton-Dickinson

animals.

and Clinical

History

nasolacrimal

Signs

A twenty-two month old female lutino cockatiel was
presented to the Kansas State University Veterinary Hospital
because of labored breathing. The bird had been owned for

Company, Parsippany, New Jersey). The fluid recovered from
the trach?al wash was examined cytologically and cultured

one year and was the only bird in the household. It was fed
a diet that consisted of a mixture of seeds with an occasional

The hemogram and serum chemistries were within the
normal reference intervals for cockatiels (Table 1). The

for microorganisms.

offering of dark green leafy vegetables. The bird was allowed
to fly around the house; however, it was reluctant to fly
during the week prior to admission into the hospital. The
bird had layed a clutch of four to six eggs each month for
three months
complaint was
respiratory

Physical

prior to the onset of her illness. The primary
the bird's labored breathing and "noisy"

sounds.

Examination

At rest the bird demonstrated open mouth breathing and a
distinct expiratory wheezing sound. The bird weighed 85
grams and appeared to have a slight reduction of the pectoral
muscle mass. The physical examination indicated a slightly
inflamed glottis. Transillumination of the trachea through the
skin failed to demonstrate an obstructive trach?al lesion that
would
marked

explain the respiratory sounds. The bird demonstrated
exercise intolerance and when allowed to flap her
for a few seconds, she developed severe dyspnea. A

wings
tracheobronchitis with possible lower respiratory tract disease
(Le., pneumonia or air sacculitis), foreign body in the trachea
distal to the area examined by the transillumination, and

VOL.1

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N0.1

1987

19

--?l

radiographs revealed a well delineated marginated mass
involving the left lung (Figure 1). The bony structures
appeared normal. The cytology of the trach?al wash indicated
a poorly cellular sample that contained a few ciliated
respiratory epithelial cells and was considered normal. No

bacteria or fungi were

isolated from the trach?al wash

sample.

A possible noninfectious cause (i.e., neoplasid) for the lung
mass was considered due to the lack of demonstration of an
1. Lateral
and ventrodorsal
Fig.
a mass
the left lung.
involving

radiographs

of a cockatiel

with

inflammatory response (normal hemogram and trach?al
wash) or infectious etiology involving the mass. Because of
the extent of the lesion and severity of the clinical signs, the
bird was given a guarded to poor prognosis for complete
recovery. An exploratory surgery and biopsy of the left lung
mass

was

considered;

however,

the owner

chose

to decline

further diagnostic procedures. The bird was euthanized and a
was

necropsy

performed.

Pathology
The gross necropsy revealed a firm, cream-colored mass
(30 mm x 15 mm) involving the entire left lung with a small
lobe extending caudally into the left abdominal air sac
(Figures 2 and 3). No other gross lesions were observed.
Impressions were taken from the excised lung mass for
cytological evaluation. The lung mass and visceral organs
were

examined histologically.

The cytology revealed numerous pleomorphic cells that
often appeared spindle shaped (Figure 4). The cytoplasm of
these cells was variable in amount, appeared finely granular,
Fig.

and stained blue. The cytoplasmic margins were indistinct in
most of the cells. The nuclei were round to oval and

2. Mass

involving

the

left lung of a
cockatiel.

20

contained prominent nucleoli. There were occasional
cells. The cells often contined cytoplasmic
multinucleated

THE AVIAN PRACTITIONER

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inclusions (Le., blue granules) or fine eosinophilic granulation.
The background material was a heavy, finely granular,
eosinophilic substance. The cytological findings were
suggestive of a connective

tissue neoplasm,

such as

?li?i?*

fibrosarcoma.

The histological evaluation indicated that the mass had
nearly replaced the left lung (Figure 5). The mass consisted
of a densely cellular accumulation of cells with round to
oval, hyperchromatic

nuclei. The nuclei often contained

prominent (sometimes multiple) nucleoli. The neoplastic cells
tended to have scanty, eosinophilic, syncytial cytoplasm. The
cells appeared spindled and fusiform in areas where the
neoplasm was
in a few

areas.

less dense. A "streaming" effect was observed
Mitotic

figures

were

common.

Most

areas

of

the mass were well vascularized, but the mass was supported
by little stroma. There was no evidence of metastasis from
either gross observation or histological evaluation of the
abdominal viscera. The histological findings of the mass were
compatible with a fibrosarcoma.

5. Histological

appearance

of

the

lung mass

(H & E

stain).

fibrosarcomas involving the lung have been
in
chickens.3
The appearance of a fibrosarcoma
reported
a
the
of
young cockatiel would lead to the
involving
lung
a
suspicion of
congenital disorder in that species as well.

Congenital

Discussion
A fibrosarcoma
connective

Fig.

tissue

is a malignancy
and

is a common

derived from fibrous
neoplasm

of birds.

or fibromas (the benign form), can be found
on
the
body of a bird. They have been reported
anywhere
involving the skin and subcutis, wings, legs, beak, long bones,

Fibrosarcomas

syrinx, liver, and intestines.1-5 Most fibrosarcomas of birds
tend to be locally invasive and do not metastasize. This case
was unusual in that the lung was

the primary organ involved.
References
1. BEACH,

J.G.: Diseases

of budgerigars and other caged
birds. A survey of postmortem findings. Vet Rea, 74:10-15,
63-68, 134-140, 1962.
2. BLACKMORE, D.K.: The clinical approach to tumors in
cage birds. I. The pathology and incidence of neoplasia in
1966.
cage birds. J. Small Anim. Prac, 7:217-223,
3. CAMPBELL, J.G.: Tumours of the Fowl. London,
William Heinemann Medical Books, Ltd., 1969.
4. HUBBARD, G.B, SCHMIDT, R.E., and FLETCHER,
K.C.: Neoplasia in zoo animals. J. Zoo Anim. Med., 14:33
40,

1983.

5. JESSUP, D.A.: Fibrosarcoma
in a burrowing owl
J.
Zoo
Anim.
Med., 10:51-52,
(Speotyto cunicularia).

Fig.

4. Cytology

showing

of an

spindle-shaped

Quite, 200 x).

taken from the
imprint
cells and multinucleated

lung mass
cells
(Diff

1979.

6. PETRAK, M.L. and GILMORE, CE.: Neoplasms.
In
M.L.
and
Diseases
of
Birds.
Petrak,
(ed):
Cage
Aviary
Philadelphia, Lea and Febiger, 1982, pp. 606-637.

V0L1 N0.1 1987 21

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