مرکزی صفحہ AAV Today Chocolate Toxicity

Chocolate Toxicity

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جلد:
1
زبان:
english
رسالہ:
AAV Today
DOI:
10.2307/27670217
Date:
April, 1987
فائل:
PDF, 324 KB
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1970-1971
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PDF, 1.04 MB
Association of Avian Veterinarians
Chocolate Toxicity
Author(s): Annette Wright
Source: AAV Today, Vol. 1, No. 1 (Jan., 1987), p. 12
Published by: Association of Avian Veterinarians
Stable URL: http://www.jstor.org/stable/27670217
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9*1 Mif ?x{i?Sue*tce,...

IME: Response to Gram's
Stains Comments

always "check under the hood."

?Alan M Fudge, DVM,

Citrus Heights, California

With regard to IME's 697 and 698, I
would agree that the Gram's stain is
only a qualitative aid in assessing the
microflora of the avian portals. In our
lab, we simply grade an organism as
small, moderate, or large in number of a
morphologic type.
The three most common reasons
Gram's stains fail to correlate with
cultures are: 1) presence of gram

negative anaerobes; 2) over
decolorization of the sample in the
practice lab; 3) swabbing the pharynx
for a Gram's stain, then reswabbing to
submit a sample to the laboratory. For
#3, the use of a sterile slide can
eliminate the need for swabbing twice.
Clinically, I do not agree that the
feces are a better place to screen a bird
bacteriologically. All too often,
practitioners will submit fecal cultures
(with no clinical changes in the stool) as

a screen for respiratory disease or
feather picking, when in fact the
pharynx may show visual and perh; aps
olfactory changes (which often correlate

with abnormal flora.) A classic
example of failure of the Gram's stain to
indicate culture results might be in the
Amazon parrot with an inflamed

pharynx that shows few or no gram
negative organisms on the Gram's stain,
but has a hemogram that strongly
suggests "bacterial infection"; twelve
hours later, a heavy bacterial growth

(e.g., Pseudomonas) may appear on

IME: Objection to Beak/
Feather Disease Comments
Dr. Helga Gerlach has stated (IME
703) that she disagrees with the
Australians concerning viral-caused
feather problems in a variety of
psittacines. She specifically mentions
lovebirds (Agapornis) and Eclectus
parrots. In my experience the Australian
workers are correct concerning the
occurrence of a similiar disease in a
variety of species.
I have seen histologie lesions that are
identical to those recently reported in
cockatoos from Florida (JA VMA, 189,

seen ingesting chocolate cake with
chocolate icing. The bird became
lethargic and later was noticed sitting
with ruffled feathers on the bottom of
the cage. Attempts were made to place
the bird back on the perch, but he
continued to fall off. A few minutes
later, the bird started regurgitating the

chocolate and passing very dark stools.
Using a home remedy for "sour
crop," 1 teaspoon of baking soda was
added to a quart of warm water and a
syringe was used to repeatedly flush out
the crop. The bird continued to
regurgitate the soda/water/chocolate
and have dark diarrhea over the next 30
minutes. A small amount of Gatorade
was later administered and within an

hour, the bird was back to normal.

?Annette Wright, North Pole,

Alaska

pg. 999) in several species including
lovebirds and Eclectus parrots, and there

has been electron microscopic
confirmation of the virus in a Ring
necked parakeet (Psittacula) with
identical histologie lesions. Both
intracytoplasmic and intranuclear
inclusions have been seen in the above
mentioned species and I believe that the
presence of intranuclear inclusions may
depend on the stage of the disease.
This does not mean that there are not
other viral diseases that affect the feather
follicle of psittacines (i.e., papovavirus),
or that there are not other non-viral

diseases which can cause grossly noted
feather abnormalities, but the disease
called psittacine beak and feather (or

IME: Adverse Reaction to

Pox Vaccine in Pigeons
The owner of 60 young racing
pigeons vaccinated all birds as
recommended for the prevention of pox.
Leg feathers were plucked and the
vaccine was brushed into the empty
follicles as directed. Ten of the birds
came down with severe clinical signs lethargy, off feed, and large lesions
around the eyes and mouth. There were
no deaths. One month later 24 birds
were revaccinated with the same vaccine

and no morbidity was noted.

The vaccine was Vineland Pigeon

media.

feather and beak) disease does occur in

Pox Vaccine of live virus chicken

Without pre-assessment with a
Gram's stain to provide guidance and
without any "diarrhea," I will always
choose the choana over the cloaca/feces
for flora assessment. Clinical success is

a variety of psittacine species based on
morphologic observations.

embryo origin. The vaccine is
recommended for use as a prevention of
pox in racing homer pigeons only. It
may cause permanent lesions or feather
color change which would disqualify
exhibition or show pigeons. Vaccination
should be administered only to healthy

improved with this approach as many
practitioners have found when
comparing separate cultures submitted
from both ends of the same bird. I'm

? Robert E. Schmidt, DVM, PhD,
California Veterinary Diagnostics,

Inc.

IME: Chocolate Toxicity

not really interested in what's passing
through at the moment, but rather
what's hanging around. Remember,

During a birthday celebration, a 1
year old tame African Grey Parrot was

birds and can be done as early as 4
weeks of age. A vaccination "take" is
determined by noting a swelling at the
site of administration 10 to 14 days

I following the vaccination. If no "take" is

12 THE AVIAN PRACTITIONER

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